The reaction between the sun and the earth’s atmosphere along with various other factors such as gravitational force are what result in the thing that we call the weather.
The climate is the average of the changeable weather conditions that happen over a long period of time. It is only possible to forecast the climate of a particular geographical area by averaging the conditions of a location over a period of thirty years. A climates description should contain information in relation to the cloud cover, rainfall, speed and direction of the wind, times of sunshine as well as the temperatures.
It is our want to be able to predict the climate in a similar way in which we predict the approaching weather conditions. However, the length of time of climate change is far greater than that of weather change.
It has been the continuous effort of mankind to explore, understand and know the world and there is no exception when it comes to the weather and climate. As our understanding of the differing patterns of weather and climate over an extended period of time, we have been able to create methods to classify and summarise the different zones of global climate.
These different climate zones are distinguished based on the Arctic, Antarctic circles and the Tropic of Cancer as well as the Tropic of Capricorn. The latitude for the Arctic is 66.5 degrees north and for the Antarctic, 66.5 degrees south. Latitudes for the Tropic of Capricorn and Cancer are 23.5 degrees south and north respectively.
The area between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of cancer is recognised as low latitudes. The climate within this area is considered to be of high humidity, minimal temperature changes, and heavy rains. It is categorised as a tropical climate. The tropics are also known as the Torrid Zone and the Tropical Zone.
The middle latitudes are the regions within the tropics and both the Arctic and Antarctic circles. These areas considered as the middle latitudes normally encounter climates with four separate seasons. This kind of climate is known as a temperate climate and has warm summers and cold winters with regular rainfall.
The area that is between the Arctic and Antarctic circles and the poles is identified as the high latitudes and has a polar climate. The polar climate is one where the winters are very cold and very long. The summers do not have a month with a temperature higher than 10 degrees. Snowfall is an ordinary occurrence in the polar climate zones.